看点丨2017世界园长大会-美国波士顿学院发展心理学哲学博士Jillian Hogan“如何用艺术打开儿童思维”
发布时间:2017-08-14 14:10:56    来源:    作者:

美国波士顿学院发展心理学哲学博士
Jillian Hogan在世界园长大会(WPC)上为我们介绍了
“如何用艺术打开儿童思维?”
下面我们一起分享她的演讲内容。
Ph.D. in the development of psychology at the Boston College
Jillian Hogan introduced us at the World Council of Watsons (WPC)
"How to open children's thinking with art?"
Here we share her presentation.

 

Jillian提出了两个问题,并作出了简要的回答。
一门好的艺术课程应该是如何组织的?
Jillian raised two questions and made a brief answer.
How should a good art course be organized?

 

对第一个问题的回答:一门好的艺术课程应该是如何组织的?Jillian认为主要包括以下几个阶段:
Answer to the first question: How should a good art course be organized? Jillian believes that the following include the following stages:

第一阶段:教师简短讲授
教师首先对某一堂课进行讲述和教授,展示各式各样的艺术作品。通常时间很短,不会超过 10 分钟。这样可以给孩子留出足够的时间去完成作品。
The first stage: the teacher briefly taught
Teachers first talk about a class and teach, show a wide range of works of art. Usually the time is very short, no more than 10 minutes. This can give the child enough time to complete the work.

第二阶段:学生自己动手绘画
老师会在教室中走动,给学生提供必要的协助。孩子可以以小组的形式、或独立的形式、或在教师的帮助下,自由表达自己的作品。
The second stage: students do their own hands painting
The teacher will walk around in the classroom to provide students with the necessary assistance. The child may freely express his or her work in the form of a group, in an independent form, or with the help of a teacher.

第三阶段:讨论艺术和展示作品
这个环节非常重要,这让学生有机会和老师一起讨论和总结自己的作画经验。学生可以提问和获得老师的反馈及建议。在这样的讨论中会发现,学生很容易犯错,并且会不断调整自己的计划,其实这就是艺术家日常中的样子。这种互相讨论不是一个竞赛,而是让孩子们有机会向其他人展示自己的作品。有时我们也会举行全校的艺术展。
The third stage: discuss art and display works
This link is very important, which gives students the opportunity to discuss and summarize their own painting experience with the teacher. Students can ask questions and get feedback from teachers and suggestions. In this discussion will find that students are prone to make mistakes, and will continue to adjust their own plans, in fact, this is the artist's daily look. This discussion is not a contest, but let the children have the opportunity to show their works to others. Sometimes we will hold the whole school art exhibition.

 

老师在艺术课程中应该教给孩子们什么?
那么对于第二个问题:老师在艺术课上要教孩子什么?
大部分孩子长大后不会成为艺术家,这是不是意味着艺术课不是必要的?
What should the teacher teach in the art class?
So for the second question: the teacher in the art class to teach children what?
Most of the children grow up will not become an artist, does that mean that art class is not necessary?

其实艺术课并不是教技巧,而是教一些非常有用的思维,让孩子形成思维习惯,也就是
Studio habits of mind。
In fact, art is not teaching skills, but to teach some very useful thinking, so that children form the habit of thinking, that is,
Studio living of mind.

主要包括以下几个方面:
Mainly include the following aspects:

1.如何制作手工。
这分为两部分:一是技巧,二是画室习惯。我们会准备好合适的创作空间,让学生在开始创作前先练习如何使用相应的工具。每个艺术家本质上都是手工者,都非常了解自己所用的工具。
1.How to make manual.
This is divided into two parts: one is the skill, the second is the studio habit. We will be ready for the appropriate creative space, so that students begin to practice before the first practice how to use the appropriate tools. Each artist is handmade in nature, and is well aware of the tools they use.

2.参与和坚持。
在艺术课堂上,创作作品是一个需要孩子坚持完成的过程。这个过程要考虑到孩子的兴趣和能力,需要不断地鼓励孩子,告诉孩子他自己的长处,并相信他可以完成,让孩子有坚持下去的信心和动力。
2. participation and persistence.
In the art class, the creative work is a process that requires the child to stick to it. This process takes into account the child's interest and ability to constantly encourage the child to tell the child his own strengths and to believe that he can be done so that the child has the confidence and motivation to persevere.

3.想象力
创作艺术品需要孩子发挥自己的想象力,去想清楚自己要如何开展艺术创作以及如何做得更好。
3.Imagination
Creative art needs children to play their own imagination, to think about how to carry out their artistic creation and how to do better.

4.表达
儿童能够通过艺术作品表达情绪和交流想法。教师要布置好的作业,让学生能够赋予自己艺术作品相应的情绪。
4. express
Children can express their emotions and communicate ideas through artwork. Teachers to arrange a good job, so that students can give their own works of art corresponding emotions.

5.观察
绘画的颜色、质感、技巧上,都对孩子的观察力有要求。
5. observation
Painting the color, texture, skills, are on the child's observation requirements.

6.反思
孩子会评估自己的作品,反思自己的绘画过程。鼓励学生提问并作出解释。教师要建立自我评估的机制和标准。让学生自我对话,评价自己是否喜欢自己在绘画过程中所作出的决定。例如:批判性三明治。
6. reflection
Children will evaluate their work and reflect on their own painting process. Encourage students to ask questions and explain. Teachers should establish self-assessment mechanisms and standards. Let the students self-talk, evaluate whether they like their own in the painting process made the decision. For example: critical sandwiches.

7.探索
艺术课有很好的机会来尝试新事物。教师会鼓励学生利用各种工具进行新的尝试。某一次的失败可能会带来不同的新方向。教师也可以设置一些小的挑战、提出一些启发性的问题,来帮助孩子探索,尽可能画他们想画的东西。艺术中没有错误,只有美丽可爱的小意外。
7. Explore
Art classes have a good chance to try new things. Teachers will encourage students to use new tools to make new attempts. A certain failure may bring a different new direction. Teachers can also set some small challenges to raise some enlightening questions to help children explore and try to draw what they want to draw. There is no mistake in art, only beautiful and lovely little accident.

8.了解艺术的世界
我们可以鼓励学生去向博物馆、艺术家、艺术机构、同伴学习。可以请现代艺术家来学校分享,也可以组织一些实地的考察。让孩子了解艺术界。
8. Understand the world of art
We can encourage students to go to museums, artists, art institutions, peer learning. You can ask the modern artists to school to share, you can also organize some field visits. Let the children understand the art world.

 

我们鼓励学生像艺术家一样思考。
艺术创造就是思考的过程。关注艺术思考的过程,而不是最终的艺术作品。
我们认为有时艺术作品可以看起来比较乱。当我们让孩子在艺术创作过程中自主选择,自我探索时,孩子们的艺术作品会看起来很乱。但是艺术带给孩子的思维习惯却是最为重要的。
We encourage students to think like an artist.
Art creation is the process of thinking. Concerned about the process of artistic thinking, rather than the final works of art.
We think that sometimes works of art can look more chaotic. When we let the children in the process of artistic creation of independent choice, self-exploration, the children's art works will look messy. But the art of children to bring the habit of thinking is the most important.


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